The ovulation occurs when an egg is expelled from the follicle in the ovary.
The ovule is released into the fallopian tube where it will be fertilized.

The ovulation date depends on woman to another. It generally occurs on the 14th days after the beginning of the period. But for example, a woman who has a 30 day cycle could ovulate on the 16th day.

Young, Barbara (2006). Wheater's Functional Histology: A Text and Colour Atlas (5th ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 359 Chaudhuri, S.K. (2007). "Natural Methods of Contraception". Practice of Fertility Control: A Comprehensive Manual, 7/e. Elsevier India. p. 49


The fertile period is the phase during which eggs can be fertilised by sperm.
This period extends beyond the ovulation date since sperm can live up to four days inside a woman's reproductive system and the egg can live for approximately 24 hours. The fertile period therefore begins three days prior to ovulation and ends 24 hours after ovulation. Unprotected intercourse within the 3 days before the ovulation can conduct to a pregnancy.

Cycles are frequently irregular. Therefore, it is impossible to predict the fertile period.

Fertilisation of the egg by the sperm takes place in the fallopian tubes. The egg then travels for 7 days to the uterus and becomes embedded itself in the uterine mucosa. This is called implantation.

Wilcox AJ, Baird DD, Weinberg CR (1999). "Time of implantation of the Conceptus and loss of pregnancy". New England Journal of Medicine 340 (23): 1796–1799

3The clinical signs of pregnancy


Certain signs can indicate pregnancy:

These signs are not always specific to pregnancy and should not alarm you. However, if you experience them, you should consult a physician.

Within the first few days of a pregnancy, the trophoblast hormone, which becomes the placenta, starts producing ß-hCG (Beta human Chorionic Gonadotropin). This hormone is a very specific marker that helps confirm whether or not a woman is pregnant. It can be detected starting on the expected day of the next menstrual period, or approximately 14 days after fertilisation.

Early symptoms of pregnancy: What happens right away". Mayo Clinic. 22 February 2007. Retrieved 22 August 2007

4Pregnancy tests


Pregnancy tests can be found in any pharmacy. They detect the presence of ß-hCG in urine.

There are many pregnancy tests available and the accuracy and detection threshold vary from brand to brand. You must carefully read the instructions for use to make sure you take the test at the right time. If you take it too early, you may get a "false negative" result due to the fact that the ß-hCG hormone level is too low to be detected. The ß-hCG hormone can only be detected in the urine once a menstrual period has been missed, which is approximately 14 days after fertilisation.

For a more precise result that is 100% reliable, you should have a test in a laboratory to detect the presence of ß-hCG in your blood.

An ultrasound could also be reliable in detecting a pregnancy. Consult your gynaecologist for further information.

Wilcox AJ, Baird DD, Weinberg CR (1999). "Time of implantation of the Conceptus and loss of pregnancy". New England Journal of Medicine 340 (23): 1796–1799

5Medical examination

The medical examination is used to identify the specific signs of pregnancy:

  • An increase in uterine volume
  • A softening of the lower part of the uterine body
  • A change in the color of the cervix (becomes purplish).


After five weeks of amenorrhea, which is five weeks since the beginning of your last menstrual period, it is possible to perform an ultrasound scan to verify the pregnancy.


“Pregnancy Symptoms". National Health Service (NHS). 11 March 2010. Retrieved 11 March 2010. Mayo Clinic. 22 February 2007. Retrieved 22 August 2007.
Jump up to: ab"Pregnancy Symptoms – Early Signs of Pregnancy : American Pregnancy Association". Retrieved 16 January 2008.

6Determining gestational age

It is crucial that a physician confirms the status of your pregnancy and how long you have been pregnant (the gestational age). The physician will estimate the date of conception.

A pregnancy is expressed in Weeks of Amenorrhea (WA), which means in the number of weeks that have lapsed since the first day of your last menstrual period.

Amenorrhea definition: The absence of menstrual periods is called amenorrhea. The “unit measurement” for gestational age is the number of amenorrhea days (DA). Seven weeks or 49 days of amenorrhea corresponds to 49 days since the start of the last menstrual period.

Calculate the number of weeks of amenorrhea :

Please use a correct date format dd/mm/yyyy

Having a physician date your pregnancy, or determine gestational age, is crucial. The only way to precisely determine how far along you are in your pregnancy is to have a blood test or ultrasound scan. Since menstrual cycles can vary from one woman to the next, only a physician can precisely determine gestational age.